The City of Birjand is the capital of this county, to the north it is neighbor to the County of Khorasan Razavi and to the east,it has 331 kms square, it has a border with Afghanistan and to the west is neighbor to the counties of Yazd, Isfehan and Semnan and to the south is neighbor to the counties of Kerman, Sistan and Balouchestan.
Southern Khorasan was separated from the countries repartitions in 1383, with approved delegations and the Islamic Council Congress within four cities of the Greater Khorasan. Now, this county has 11 townships, 28towns, 25allotments, 61rural districts, and 3,555 villages. The cities of this county consist of: - Birjand, Ghayenat, Tabass, Ferdows, Nehbandan, Sarayan, Sarbisheh, Darmiyan, Boshrooyeh, Khosf and Zirkooh. Having original designs, motifs and handicraft production with the use of local raw materials in the manufacturing field of handicrafts of the County of Southern Khorasan it has the advantage of handicrafts of the county.
Of the nearly 300 fields and subfields identified and coded country handicrafts, more than 80 fields have identified in the County of Southern Khorasan, were used or are being used in this book, in the collection as part of the county, in the field of native handicrafts.
The Historical Look at Ghohestan
The small area of Birjand in those days was Ghohestan. Ghohestan was a mountainous and uneven area which had many happenings and events. Especially in the way of happening’s, after the appearance of Islam was very important. From the Achaemenian inscriptions and Greek historians records, Ghohestan was one of the area’s which Sagarts people (Iranian) wanted to live and it was a part of fourteenth Satrap, Achaemenian. Kal-Jangal inscription shows how much the area was important in the Sassanian period, in which Ghohestan was famous and habitable. In Kooch village we have some hand writings on stones, in Lakh Mazar, which was in Pahlavi Sassani Characters which we see the name of Heptali king and Sassani king (Ghobad). After the Arabs conquered Ghohestan in the 29thcentury computed according to the Lunar Calender, Valiyan-Kholafa managed the Ghohestan until 259 Hejrat, Abbasian managed it, and then in some time was managed by Saffarian and local managers of Sistan. From the Hassan-Sabbah period until the Holakoo Khan-Moghols attack, this area got to be one of the Esmailiyeh main diplomatic focuses and then Almot.
The Ghohestan area changed in many periods, but, the shape consisted of mountain areas which were to the north –west next to the Kavir Desert, to the south-west and south is next to the Loot Desert and to the east next to Na-Omid Field and Deserts, also Salt Deserts of Afghanistan, and was the big area of Ghayenat, Zirkooh, Gonabad, Ferdows, Tabass, Birjand and Nehbandan. Certainly this area after the wars and changing the strategies in Iran, it changed and became neighbour to Kashmar, Torbat-Heydariye and Torbat-Jam and to the south of Neyshabour. This area which was from Khosf (in the west) to Tabass (in the east), was important for the roads, which joined the southern places to the heart of Neyshabour and Great Khorasan. In other words, the area at the confluence of three areas have been as follows: Khorasan region in the north, the inner regions of the West and Southwest, and southern plateau and the pages and in the south eastern Sistan and Send regions, Moreover, due to the topography and climate unfavorable Birjand area and being far from the political centers of power, is behind certain historical events.